Lens Features and Types: How to Choose the Right Lens?

lens features

A camera is worthless without its lens. A lens’s goal in creating photographs is to work in tandem with the camera. The lens is more important than the camera body. Choosing a great lens, rather than just a suitable lens, will help you generate high-quality images for your photography needs.

While the camera body offers the megapixels, settings, light meter, ISO, and shutter release, the lens controls what is projected onto the image sensor of your camera, the angle of vision, magnification, and much more.

As you may discover when beginning into photography, the internet is flooded with information, and selecting the right lens for your purposes may be daunting at best. Before you embark on your photographic adventure, it’s critical to evaluate the sorts of photographs that not only inspire you but also help you pick what genre or area of photography you want to specialize in.

Let’s get started with the camera lens guide for beginners by going over some of the basics that will help you understand how the lens works and which lenses may be utilized to produce different photographs.

Anatomy of the Camera Lens

A camera lens is a tool that directs the light from what you’re filming onto a digital sensor within the camera body. The inside is built of glass, albeit it cannot be seen. Some of the parts are permanent to the interior of the lens barrel, while others are adjustable; each aid in focusing, zooming, and so forth.


The zoom ring of a zoom lens, which will be discussed later, allows the user to modify the focus length. A zoom ring will not be present on a prime or fixed lens for obvious reasons, and the focal length will be shown on the barrel instead. The focus ring is located at the top of the lens. This section of the lens moves and adjusts the locations of the glass within the lens, as well as the distance between the lens and the sensor.

The focus ring may be manually adjusted to regulate where the focus is on the image being formed. The following sections provide explanations of how to choose the appropriate lens based on its features and types, which determine the quality of the final image.

Features of Camera Lens

Looking at and analyzing a camera lens’s qualities is one of the greatest ways to decide if it will meet your demands.


Aperture affects more than just the amount of light you can capture. Additionally, it controls the depth of field or the extent to which our subject is in focus from front to back. Since the depth of field grows as the aperture is reduced, landscape photographers frequently choose apertures like f/8, f/11, or f/16 to achieve sharp focus from the front to the back. The letter f and related numerals stand in for the aperture. They are known as f-stops. Given that it is wide open, an aperture with a low value, such as f1.2, allows low light to pass through.

As a result, it renders a scene completely bright. Less light passes through the scene when the f-stop is larger or higher because the aperture is smaller. When photographing dark scenes, higher f-stops shouldn’t be used.

The most crucial characteristics of a lens are its focal length and aperture together. The subjects that a lens is designed to capture can be inferred quite a bit from its focal length(s) and maximum aperture.

Focal Length

The focal length, which is specified and measured in millimeters, determines the sort of lens you have, such as a telephoto or wide-angle lens. The ability to reach as close to your subject as you like is the main benefit of utilizing a telephoto lens. But even so, the main drawback of utilizing a telephoto lens is that the majority of ‘cheap’ models start at f3.5 or even f4.5, which does not let in a significant amount of light. Wide-angle lenses provide the appropriate depth of field as well as acceptable lighting.

Basic Types of Lenses

There are numerous basic types of lenses used for diverse purposes in cameras, which are described in the section below.

Prime Lens vs Zoom Lens

There are two kinds of lenses: zoom lenses and prime lenses. “Prime” is simply another word for “fixed.” A zoom lens, as the name implies, allows you to zoom in and out, reaching closer and farther away from items in your composition. This feature is not available with a prime lens.

Your initial instinct might be to reach for a zoom lens because it can make far-off objects appear closer in your photographs. That can be helpful when you can’t always get as near to your subjects as you’d like, such as when taking pictures of nature. Conversely, zoom lenses fall short of prime lenses in terms of clarity. Wider aperture settings on prime lenses also enable you to take photos with better lighting.

Furthermore, since aperture and depth of field are related, using a prime lens with a bigger aperture than a zoom lens gives you the chance to get the sumptuous shallow depth of field-related Bokeh effect. The size and weight of prime lenses are routinely reduced.

Additionally, prime lenses typically offer slightly higher optical quality than zooms. However, zoom lenses allow you to carry just one lens instead of a whole bag of prime lenses with fixed focal lengths.

There are numerous lenses with various focal lengths that fall under the prime and zoom categories of lenses.

Standard Lens

Standard lenses or normal lenses or are defined as having a “medium” focal length that is neither extremely wide nor extremely telephoto. Since the normal lens does not exaggerate perspective and may be used for a wide range of photography demands, many photographers believe in it as their primary instrument. Normal-lens photography gives the impression that you are gazing at the world with your eyes, not a camera.

Their focal lengths are in the midrange, typically ranging from 35mm to 85mm.

Macro Lens

Macro lenses enable you to photograph objects up close and personal. This lens, or at least one of the lenses, might be suited for if you appreciate photographing fine details like the veining on flower petals or the grain of the wood. They feature a special design that makes it possible for them to capture sharp images at very close range.

Even though your macro lens has a wide range of available focal lengths, it should nonetheless have a 1:1 magnification. Because of the magnification, you can capture close-up or extremely close-up photographs of any subject without going too close to them.

Additionally, macro lenses aren’t only for close-up photography. They may be used for portraiture and other things and are quite flexible. The major physical drawback of this lens is how inconvenient its heavy frame is to carry. In addition to being heavy, you might need to bring a tripod to prevent camera shaking when taking close-up pictures.

Telephoto Lens

A telephoto lens is a powerful prime lens that is very beneficial for photographers working in wildlife, news, and sports. It makes it possible for your camera to take clear, detailed pictures even when you’re quite a distance Alternatively, you can get close to the action using this kind of lens.

Super-telephoto lenses have a range of more than 300 millimeters, telephoto lenses have a range of 70 to 200 millimeters. It will be difficult to focus when just your subject is sharp because of the limited depth of field of the lens.

After you’ve decided on the type of lens you want and how much money you’re ready to spend, you can start looking into the lenses that are available.

Wide-Angle Lens

Wide-angle lenses live up to their name. Urban and architectural photographers like it because it allows them to capture a large region. You might be able to capture a captivating skyscraper or a crowded downtown area with a wide-angle lens. If you want to travel, a wide-angle attachment might be the ideal choice for you since landscape photographers frequently use this kind of lens. With this kind of focal length, great care should be taken to prevent vignetting and distortion. Additionally, there are ‘fisheye’ lenses that offer warped views of reality!

How to choose the right lens?

The type of scenes or subjects you plan to capture has a big impact on the lens you choose. It matters how you interpret a scene, as much as how you view an object or subject. A wide-angle lens can be used to capture a group of individuals, whereas a telephoto lens may be preferred by another photographer. Your desired outcome will determine everything.

When someone picks up a camera, they are generally motivated by anything that piques their interest, such as landscapes, portraiture, real estate, cuisine, commercial work such as jewelry, beer or cocktails, beauty items, and so on. Whatever it is, you will need the proper equipment to not just shoot but also generate great work. Purchase the greatest lens that you can afford. Therefore now, you should be able to identify the appropriate lens for your requirements with more clarity.

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